Scaling and root planing
During scaling and root planing, the roots of the teeth are cleaned below the gum line, removing bacteria and mineralized calculus deposits; the roots are smoothed to help reduce future buildup of bacteria on the root surfaces. The purpose of root planing is to lessen the irritation to the gums caused by these deposits and to make the tissue healthier prior to surgery, which makes any recommended surgical procedure shorter and promotes faster healing. In some shallower pockets, scaling and root planing may be enough to postpone or eliminate the need for surgery.
Periodontal Surgery (Osseous Surgery)
In cases of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis (gum disease) there is significant loss of gum and bone attachment from the teeth. As a result, a space develops between the teeth and gums called a 'pocket'. Not only are deep pockets an indication of bone loss, but they are a risk factor for further bone and attachment loss which could lead to the loss of teeth. With periodontal surgery the gums are temporarily separated from the involved teeth; the exposed roots of the teeth are then thoroughly cleaned. The irregularities in the bone, caused by periodontial disease may be smoothed so the gums can lie more evenly over them. This leads to reduced pocket depths, healthier gums, and give you a better chance at keeping your teeth clean and your gums healthy.